HOME OF THE DEDUCTION OF

THE UNIT ELECTRICAL MATTER SUBSTRUCTURE

OF STANDARD MODEL PARTICLES

by James Rees

The deduction of the quark triplet unit electrical substructure allowed for the deduction of the unit electrical substructure of all the Standard Model particles.

Standard Model Particles Substructures


Briefest of Summaries of the Three Steps of Deduction of the Unit Electrical Subtructure of Standard Model Particles

In the first step of deduction, starting with the fractional electrical charge of up and down quarks, which are the constituents of protons and neutrons, the triplet unit electrical substructure of up and down quarks was deduced. The thirds fractional electrical charge of up and down quarks is a glaring hint at the triplet unit electrical substructure of up and down quarks. 

The triplet unit electrical matter subtructure of up and down quarks was deduced from the strong force following SU(3) symmetry, the tripolar charge of the strong force and from the thirds fractional electrical charge of up and down quarks.

3 Indications of Quark Tripolar Substructure

The proton unit eletrical matter substruture and bound energy in rotation formed from the triplet unit electrical matter substruture up and down quarks explains all three hints. The fractional electrical charge of quarks is due to their triplet unit electrical matter substructure. The SU(3) symmetry of the strong nuclear force between quarks is caused the quark's internal triplet unit electrical matter substructure. The reason the strong nuclear force is tripolar is because it works between quarks which have a tripolar substructure.
proton unit electrical matter substructure with energy loops

In the second step of deduction of the background of matter, the doublet unit electrical substructure of neutrinos was deduced from the uni-directional spin of the anti-neutrino in neutron decay.

neutrinos

The energy loops represent angular momentum energy. The anti-neutrino has right hand spin.

The deduction of the neutrino doublet unit electrical substructure allowed for the deduction of the unit electrical substructure of all the Standard Model particles.

Standard Model Particles Substructures


In the third step of deduction of the background of matter, the massless doublet substructure was deduced to possibly exist. The deduction of the neutrino doublet unit electrical substructure allowed for the deduction of the massless doublet unit electrical substructure. If doublet substructures existed, as evidenced by explaining neutrino behavior, then the positive and negative units of matter must not annihilate when in contact. 

Doublet Substructures


Doublet substructures were deduced to be massless substructures.  Doublet substructures can only have momentum energy, no rest mass.  Doublet substructures have zero rest mass, meaning no internal structural energy.


The Unit Electrical Matter Substruture of Standard Model particles meant that all particles could be made with just two components, units of energy and units of electrical matter. 

Units of Energy               units of matter

All Standard Model Particles were deduced to be composed of just two components, units of energy and units of positive and negative electrical matter. This deduction allowed for the explanation of wave-particle duality, which is that the particles are composed of two components, energy which exhibits wave behavior, and units of electrical matter, which exhibit the particle behavior.

EXPLANATIONS ALLOWED BY THE UNIT MATTER STRUCTURE OF STANDARD MODEL PARTICLES

1 The Nature of Wave-Particle Duality
2 The Nature of Time
3 The Nature of Rest Mass
The Nature of the Spin and Statistics Theorem
5 Neutrino Helicity
6 Weak Force Parity Violation
7 How a Neutral Particle can Possess a Magnetic Dipole
8 The Nature of the Fractional Charge of Quarks
9 The Tripolar Color Charge of the Strong Force
10 The Asymptotic Freedom of the Strong Force
11 The Source of SU(3) Symmetry in the Strong Force
12
The Source of SU(2) Symmetry in the Weak Force

13 The Source of U(1) Symmetry in the Electromagnetic Force
14 The Nature of E=mc2

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory has been reviewed by many physicists and nothing contrary to physics has been found.


by James Rees 

A Less Brief Summary of  the Three Steps of Deduction


In first two steps of deduction, the Unit Electrical Matter Substructure of all Standard Model particles was deduced.  

Standard Model Particles Substructures

In the first step of deduction, the triplet unit electrical matter subtructure of up and down quarks was deduced from the strong force following SU(3) symmetry, the tripolar charge of the strong force and from the fractional electrical charge of up and down quarks.

3 Indications of Quark Tripolar Substructure

In the Standard Model, protons are composed of 3 quarks, 2 up quarks and 1 down quark, all 3 of a different color because there are 3 poles in the strong force nuclear force.

Protons are made of 3 quarks

In the Standard Model, electrons and up and down quarks are fundamental particles, but up and down quarks have fractional electrical charge! Fractional electrical charge indicates a substructure. Therefore, a tripolar substructure of up and down quarks was investigated and found to fit the observational evidence.


Proton SM View UM View


Electron SM View UM View                    
                 

In the second step of deduction, the doublet substructure of electron neutrinos was deduced from the properties of neutrinos. The uni-directional spin of the anti-neutrino in neutron decay is a big glaring hint.


neutrinos

The energy loops represent angular momentum energy. The anti-neutrino has right hand spin.

The deduction of the neutrino doublet unit electrical substructure allowed for the deduction of the massless doublet unit ellectrical substructure.

Standard Model Particles Substructures

In the third step of deduction, the massless energyless doublet particle was deduced from the neutrino doublet substructure by realizing a doublet substructure with no momentum energy would be the lowest energy state of matter, zero structural energy and zero momentum energy.

The universal background of matter was deduced to exist, not created ad hoc. The deduced Unit Electrical Matter Substructure of Standard Model particles predicts energyless particles consisting only of units of matter, no units of energy. The deduced Unit Electrical Matter Substructure of Standard Model particles predicts the particles of pure matter, which compose the background.

The deduction of the Unit Electrical Matter Substructure of Standard Model particles is a physical interpretation of the known math, the math of SU(3) symmtery of the strong force, and the math of SU(2) symmtery of the weak force.

THE NATURE OF MATTER by James Rees explains the deduction of the existence of the universal background of matter in detail.


This is How You Know is it Correct

The Deduction of the Unit Electrical Matter Substructure Of Standard Model Particles

In 2 steps of deduction, the Unit Electrical Matter Substructure of Standard Model particles was deduced.

Standard Model Particles Substructures

There is a newly realized component of Standard Model particles, in addition to the known units of energy component, there is the units of electrical charged matter component. The newly deduced component of Standard Model particles is positive and negative units of electrical matter. In addition to the known units of energy component, Standard Model particles have units of electrically charged matter as a component.

Units of Energy               units of matter

All Standard Model Particles were deduced to be composed of just two components, units of energy and units of positive and negative electrical matter.

Background Pure Matter Particles

The particles of pure matter composing the Universal Background of Matter would be the source of all the positive and negative units of matter in all of the particles in the Universe.

quarks

Quarks were deduced to have a triplet unit matter substructure from the tripolar charge of the strong force, the associated SU(3) symmetry of the strong force, and the thirds fractional electrical charge of quarks.

The math of Quantum Chromodynamics directly indicates the triplet substructure of quarks because SU(3) symmetry physically means that energy is in closed loop rotation about the three poles creating 8 gluons.  

The SU(3) symmetry of Quantum Chromodynamics directly indicates an internal structure of quarks that involves 3 co-located centers of energy rotation. SU(3) symmetry is three co-located axes of complex energy rotation.


The
Unit Matter Substructure Theory of Standard Model Particles explains the source of the symmetries exhibited by each of the natural forces.





leptons



neutrinos

quarks
Singlet Substructures
Doublet Substructures Triplet Substructures
U(1)
Symmetry
SU(2) Symmetry SU(3)
Symmetry
Electromagnetic Force
Weak Nuclear
Force
Strong Nuclear
Force

For example, the SU(3) symmetry of the strong force is caused by the energy of the up and down quark being configured about a triplet unit quark substructure with 3 co-located units of matter at the center of the substructure.  The strong force is tripolar because of the three units within the up and down quark substructures are 3 poles around which the quark structural energy is in rotation.
The configuration of energy exchanges in the Strong Nuclear Force, the Weak Nuclear Force, and the Electromagnetic Force are determined by the unit matter substructure of the particle involved in the interactions. For instance, the strong force energetic interactions between quarks are tripolar (3 colors) because the internal structural energy of the up and down quarks is configured about a triplet of units of charged matter.

Subsequently, neutrinos were deduced to have a doublet unit matter substructure composed of two units of matter, one positive and one negative, which combine to be make the neutral neutrino substructure from the experimental evidence of neutron decay resulting in the electron anti-neutrino having right hand spin.

neutrinosphotons

The anti-neutrino in neutron decay has zero rest mass, slight interaction with matter, is neutral, and has right hand spin. These anti-neutrino characteristics are explained with a zero rest mass doublet substructure with right hand momentum energy. The reason the neutrino interacts so slightly is the electrical fields of the positive and negative units of matter composing the doublet substructure are completely wrapped around each other and not free to interact.

The doublet substructures of the electron neutrino and of photons were deduced to have zero rest mass, meaning no internal energy in the particle structure. It was the ability to explain electron anti-neutrino right hand spin in neutron decay with a
doublet substructure and the photon with spin 1 with a doublet substructure that forced the author to the accept that doublet substructures must exist, and the negative and positive units are not destructible. The permanent nature of the units of matter directly leads to correctly interpreting the evidence of the background of massless doublets.

Several phenomena of science are easily explained once one has the knowledge of the unit of matter substructure of Standard Model particles. 

EXPLANATIONS ALLOWED BY THE UNIT MATTER STRUCTURE OF STANDARD MODEL PARTICLES

1 The Nature of Wave-Particle Duality
2 The Nature of Time
3 The Nature of Rest Mass
The Nature of the Spin and Statistics Theorem
5 Neutrino Helicity
6 Weak Force Parity Violation
7 How a Neutral Particle can Possess a Magnetic Dipole
8 The Nature of the Fractional Charge of Quarks
9 The Tripolar Color Charge of the Strong Force
10 The Asymptotic Freedom of the Strong Force
11 The Source of SU(3) Symmetry in the Strong Force
12
The Source of SU(2) Symmetry in the Weak Force

13 The Source of U(1) Symmetry in the Electromagnetic Force
14 The Nature of E=mc2

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory has been reviewed by many physicists and nothing contrary to physics has been found.  Nothing contrary to physics will be found because the theory is correct or it would not so readily explain present mysteries like wave-particle duality or the source of the symmetries in the natural forces.


James Rees

Comments welcome: jrees@starlight-publishing.com



THE NATURE OF MATTER by James Rees explains the deduction of the existence of the universal background of matter in detail.



Overview of the Three Steps of Deduction


Standard Model Particles Substructures


The Three Steps of Deduction of Deducing the Unit Electrical Substruture of Standard Model Particles

First, in Steps of Deduction 1 and 2, the Unit Matter Substructure of Standard Model particles was deduced. Then, in Steps of Deduction 3 and 4, the Universal Background of Matter was deduced. The Universal Background of Matter is a necessary consequence of the Unit Matter Substructure of Standard Model particles.

The first step of deduction of deducing the universal background of matter is up and down quarks were deduced to be composed of a triplet of units of electrically charged matter. Up and down quarks were deduced to be composed of a triplet of units of electrically charged matter from the evidence of the fractional electrical charge of up and down quarks.

quarks

The fractional electrical charge math of up and down quarks is telling us that up quarks and down quarks have a triplet of units of electrically charged matter within their structure. Group math explains how the triplets of units of electrical charge represent the fractional charge of up quarks (+2/3) and down quarks (-1/3). 

Up and down quarks were deduced to have a triplet  unit electrical charge matter substructure from this evidence:

The math of quark fractional electrical charge
The tripolar charge of the strong force
The SU(3) symmetry of the strong force

Proton         Anti-Proton

Table 1 and Table 2 shows the ratios of positive units of matter and negative units of matter. Present physics uses the green columns, or positive matter ratios for normal matter and negative matter ratios for anti-matter.  More detailed explanations are in Summary of the Steps of Deduction and The Nature of Matter Step 1 Triplet Substructures.

Normal Matter


Anti-Matter

Positive Matter
Ratio

Negative Matter
Ratio


Negative Matter
Ratio

Positive Matter
Ratio

up = +2/3

up = +1/3


anti-up = -2/3

anti-up = -1/3

down = -1/3

down = -2/3


anti-down = +1/3

anti-down = +2/3

Table 1                                    Table 2

The green columns are well known. The purple columns are a newly identified hidden symmetry
.

Here is an example of the group math for the proton using the positive and negative unit matter ratios in Table 1 and Table 2.

EXAMPLE: THE ELECTRICAL CHARGE OF A PROTON

Positive matter ratios, or the green columns, in Table 1 and Table 2 are used in present physics. Positive matter ratios count the positive unit charges contribution to the charge of the proton. The net positive matter in the proton is +1. The net negative matter is 0.


Up


Down


Up


Proton

Positive Matter

+2/3

+

-1/3

+

+2/3

=

+1

Negative Matter

+1/3

+

-2/3

+

+1/3

=

0

Overall charge

+1

+

-1

+

+1

=

+1


Negative matter ratios or the purple columns in Tables 1 and Table 2 are new to present physics. There is no net negative matter in the proton as each up quark contributes +1/3 negative matter and the down quark contributes -2/3 negative matter, giving a total of zero net negative matter in the proton.



The second step of deduction of deducing the universal background of matter is that neutrinos were deduced to be composed of a doublet substructures of units of electrically charged matter. Neutrinos were deduced to be composed of a doublet substructures of units of electrically charged matter from the observed behavior of neutrinos, specifically that anti-neutrinos only have right hand spin, that neutrinos are neutral particles that have 1/2 spin, and neutrinos interact ever so slightly.

neutrinos

The energy loops represent angular momentum energy. The anti-neutrino has right hand spin.

Doublet substructures were deduced to be massless substructures.  Doublet substructures can only have momentum energy, no rest mass.  Doublet substructures have zero rest mass.  The explanation is in the Summary of the Steps of Deduction.

Neutrinos were deduced to have a doublet unit charge, unit particle of matter substructure from this evidence:

There are only two neutrinos in each family
Neutrino Unidirectional Spin
Neutron Magnetic Dipole
Weak Force Parity Violation
SU(2) Symmetry of the Weak Force

Ultimately, photons were deduced to be doublet substructures with two counter rotating sets of bound energy.

photons

A doublet would have two collapsed electrical fields as the two electrical fields that emanate from the two units of electrically charged matter within the doublet would be tighly wrapped around one another after squeezing out all energy and reducing the two fields to a neutrino sized point of neutral matter. The pink loops in the neutrino illustrations show the rotation of energy about the doublet.

Add photons to the unit matter substructures of Standard Model particles and the first family of Standard Model particles is complete.

Standard Model Particles Substructures

The result is, if doublet substructures exist, then the units of charged matter are permanent in nature, neither created nor destroyed, just like energy!

Therefore, all Standard Model particles are made from just two things, units of charged matter, which came from the background of massless matter, and units of energy.

All Standard Model Particles are made from Two Components,

Units of Energy and Units of Matter.

Units of Energy               units of matter

Here is how you know the Unit Matter Substructure Theory is correct. The Unit Matter Substructure Theory of Standard Model Particles explains the source of the symmetries expressed by each of the natural forces.





leptons



neutrinos

quarks
Singlet Substructures
Doublet Substructures Triplet Substructures
U(1) Symmetry SU(2) Symmetry SU(3) Symmetry
Electromagnetic Force
Weak Force
Strong Force

The strong force is a tripolar force because the energy of quarks is energy that is exchanged (or rotates) about a triplet of units of matter in the quark substructure. The Weak Force interactions have a SU(2) component due an energetic interaction with the two units of charged matter within the neutrino substructure.  Electrons and positrons are particles with a singlet of charged unit of matter composing the particle substructure.

EXPLANATIONS ALLOWED BY THE UNIT MATTER STRUCTURE OF STANDARD MODEL PARTICLES

1 The Nature of Wave-Particle Duality
2 The Nature of Time
3 The Nature of Rest Mass
4 The Nature of the Spin and Statistics Theorem
5 Neutrino Helicity
6 Weak Force Parity Violation
7 How a Neutral Particle can possess a Magnetic Dipole
8 The Fractional Electrical Charge of Quarks
9 The Tripolar Color Charge of the Strong Force
10 The Asymptotic Freedom
of the Strong Force
11 The Source of the SU(3) Symmetry in the Strong Force
12 The Source of SU(2) Symmetry in the Weak Force
13 The Source of U(1) Symmetry in the Electromagnetic Force
14 E
=mc2

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory has been reviewed by many physicists and nothing contrary to physics has been found.  Nothing contrary to physics will be found because the theory is correct or it would not so readily explain present mysteries like wave-particle duality or the source of the symmetries in the natural forces.

The third step of deduction of deducing the universal background of matter is massless doublets were deduced to exist from the existence of the neutrino doublets. If doublets substructures existed, as evidenced by explaining neutrino behavior, then the positive and negative units of matter must not annihilate when in contact. 

Doublet Substructures

While electrons and positrons are subject to annihilation, the units of matter by some mechanism stop and do not destroy one another within the doublet substructure. The positive and negative units of matter must be permanent in nature and not destructible as evidenced by the existence of the neutrino doublet substructure. 

Therefore, there must exist massless doublets with no momentum energy, because massless doublets would be the lowest energy state of matter, no energy at all. There must exist massless doublets with neither rest mass energy nor momentum energy. The massless doublets only have a matter component, no energy component. 

Background Pure Matter Particles

The deduction of the unit particle of matter substructure of Standard Model particles indicated that the opposite charge unit particles of matter forming the neutrino doublet substructure must be non-destructible. Since unit particles of matter must be non-destructible, they must be permanent in nature. Therefore a previously unknown particle must exist, an energyless doublet particle made from two unit particles of matter and zero units of energy, only pure matter.



The deduction of the unit of matter substructure of Standard Model particles elucidated the distinction between units of energy and units of matter as components of particles. The two and only two building blocks of universe were deduced to be:

Units of Energy and Units of Matter

     Units of Energy               units of matter      


THE NATURE OF MATTER
by
James Rees
Published by Starlight Publishing Company.

Table of Contents
Part I Chapter 1 The Background of Matter
Part I Chapter 3 The Steps of Deduction of the Background of Matter
Part I Chapter 4 Evidence of the Background of Matter

Comments welcome:
jrees@starlight-publishing.com
Initial: January 11, 2001
Edited: Sept. 29, 2019


Copyright 2001

Starlight Publishing Company

Hermosa Beach, CA