THE NATURE OF MATTER

PART I   THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER

CHAPTER 1  THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER

The sections in Chapter 1 are:

1 The Background of Matter
2 Tour of the Steps of Deduction of the Background of Matter
3 About Part I

TOUR OF THE
STEPS OF DEDUCTION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER

Section 2


There were four steps of deduction followed in realizing the existence of the universal background of matter.

The four steps of deduction of deducing the universal background of matter are covered in Part I Chapter 3 The Steps of Deduction of the Background of Matter.

STEP 1 TRIPLET UNIT PARTICLE OF MATTER SUBSTRUCTURES
full STEP 1

The existence of a universal background ocean of massless neutral particles of matter was not deduced from cosmological considerations, rather the initial starting point was a solution to the quandary of the fractional electrical charge on the supposed fundamental particles, the up and down quarks.

Up and down quarks are the building blocks of protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are the building blocks of the atomic nucleus. Quarks as particle units have been experimentally demonstrated to possess fractional electrical charge.

Normal Matter


Anti-Matter

Positive Matter
Ratios

Negative Matter
Ratios


Negative Matter
Ratios

Positive Matter
Ratios

up = +2/3

up = +1/3


anti-up = -2/3

anti-up = -1/3

down = -1/3

down = -2/3


anti-down = +1/3

anti-down = +2/3


Table 1                                                                Table 2

The initial starting point which ultimately lead to the deduction of a background ocean of matter was the conflict between quarks having fractional charge and quarks being fundamental particles. Basically, it is illogical to have fractional electrical charge on a fundamental particle because fractions indicate division or ratios, not a particle that is singular in composition.

There had to be an aesthetically appealing explanation of the fractional electrical charge of up and down quarks. Suddenly, there was clarity in the realization that the fundamental nature of the quark was inferred from theory, and the fractional charge was experimentally demonstrated. The fractional charge mathematics of up and down quarks could be explained as partial group mathematics of two symmetrical pairs of triplet unit particle of matter groups. A triplet is a bound group of three unit charge particles of matter.

THE EXPLANATION OF FRACTIONAL CHARGE AS GROUP MATH

The two triplets subtructures of unit charge unit matter account for up and down and anti-up and anti-down electrical charge ratios.

Positive matter ratios are the number of positive units of matter compared to the whole group. Negative matter ratios are the number of negative units of matter compared to the whole group. The group charge determines the charge of the ratios.

For instance:

the 'up' substructure has two positive units of matter out of a group of three
the group charge is +1,
so the positive matter ratio is + 2/3
and the negative matter ratio is + 1/3

STEP 2 DOUBLET UNIT PARTICLE OF MATTER SUBSTRUCTURES
full STEP 2

As the proposed triplet substructure of up and down quarks explained quark fractional charge mathematics, and since a singlet substructure could be proposed for electrons and positrons, that only left neutrinos and photons as particles in the standard model that had not yet had a unit particle of matter substructure proposed for them. One could not help but wonder whether neutrinos might also have a substructure, a group of two unit particles of matter which would be neutral, because then all matter would have a unit particle of matter substructure.

What about neutrinos? Do neutrinos fit the pattern too?

A doublet substructure for neutrinos explains three major properties of neutrinos:

Neutrino Magnetic Dipole
Why there are two neutrinos, one matter, one anti-matter.
Neutrino Helicity

Neutrino Magnetic Dipole

The doublet substructure explains why neutrinos have a magnetic dipole. Neutrinos have a magnetic dipole because neutrinos are composed of two unit particles of matter, and the two composing unit charge particles of matter have magnetic dipoles.

Why There are Two Neutrinos.


The doublet substructure explains why there are two types of neutrinos, one matter and one anti-matter. There are two types of neutrinos, a neutrino and an anti-neutrino, because there are only two possible configurations or alignments of the magnetic dipoles of the two composing unit particles of matter. The anti-neutrino has the positive unit at the northern most end of the common magnetic dipole and the neutrino has the negative unit is at the northern most end of the common magnetic dipole.

Neutrino Helicity

The doublet substructure explains neutrino helicity. A doublet substructure explains neutrino helicity because the anti-neutrino has the right handed positive unit at the northern most end of the common magnetic dipole and the neutrino has the left handed negative unit is at the northen most end of the common magnetic dipole.weak force interaction imparts momentum energy onto the northern most unit particle within the neutrino's common magnetic dipole.


Neutrino doublet substructure is manifested by these four phenomenon:

Neutrino Magnetic Dipole
Neutrino Helicity
Neutron Magnetic Dipole
Weak Force Parity Violation

STEP 3 MASSLESS DOUBLETS
full STEP 3

The idea of a doublet particle made of unit charge matter particles forced me to consider whether matter might be permanent in nature because for a doublet to exist, the positive and negative matter units must not annihilate. If matter were permanent in nature, a state of matter could exist which was pure matter, just two units of matter bound together, with no energy. A pure matter doublet particle would be neutral and energyless.

STEP 4 A BACKGROUND OF MASSLESS DOUBLETS
full STEP 4

The immediate suspicion upon realizing the possible existence of a neutral energyless particle is that there could well be a very great many of them if they existed at all because that particle would be the lowest energy state possible of matter, zero energy.


I was therefore compelled to look for evidence of a great many neutral energyless particles. There is plenty of evidence once you look for it.


The following phenomena are offered in Chapter 4 as evidence of the background of matter:

Section 1 Magnetic Flux
Section 2 Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

A very surprising was result that magnetic flux is the flow of the background of matter. Magnetic flux is proposed to be the flow of background particles caused by the motion of charged energy.

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is proposed to be the thermal blackbody radiation of the background ocean of matter. Direct measurement of the thermal radiation of the background ocean of matter gives a temperature of 2.7 K for the background of pure matter.


The sections in Chapter 1 are:

1 The Background of Matter
2 Tour of the Steps of Deduction of the Background of Mattertop of page
3 About Part I

The Steps of Deduction: Step 1 From Fractional Charge of Quarks to Triplet Substructures

Chapter 3 The Steps of Deduction
Chapter 4 Evidence of a Background of Matter
PART III PHYSICS MYSTERIES EXPLAINED

Title Page of the NATURE OF MATTER
Table of Contents of the NATURE OF MATTER


Comments: jrees@starlight-publishing.com

Copyright 2000
Starlight Publishing Company
Hermosa Beach, CA

Last update: Sept. 8, 2000

Created April 4, 1997