THE NATURE OF MATTER

PHYSICS MYSTERIES EXPLAINED PART III

THE BIG BANG AND THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER
CHAPTER 15

Section 1 The Evidence of The Big Bang Theory Re-Examined

Fact 1 The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
Fact 2
The Redshift of Intergalactic Light
The Stretched Photon Fallacy
Photon Detection Mechanisms
Doppler Shift Mechanisms
Red Shift Indicated Age Problems
Fact 3 H 75% He 25% Nucleosynthesis Calculations
Fact 4
Evidence of an Evolving Universe
Quasars at High Red Shift Only
Hubble's Young Galaxies

Section 2 The Big Bang Theory Re-Examined

Could be cosmological expansion ...
Genesis Realized
Plasma Cosmology
Halton Arp and Matter Creation
The Beginning of Time



THE EVIDENCE OF THE BIG BANG THEORY RE-EXAMINED
SECTION 1

The deduced existence of a background of matter provided a direct physical mechanism to explain the source of the cosmic background radiation.

The cosmic background radiation is the thermal blackbody radiation of the ubiquitous background of matter.

Given the knowledge that the background of matter provided a direct cause and effect mechanism for the source of the cosmic background radiation, the next logical question to ask was whether there might be an alternative explanation for each of the other phenomena that are evidence supporting Big Bang cosmology. This chapter takes a critical look at the evidence supporting Big Bang cosmology in light of the knowledge of the background of matter.

The existence of the background of matter does not disprove the Big Bang Theory.

Link to the standard Big Bang interpretation of the evidence.
Cambridge Hot Big Bang

The luminous matter in space is organized in large scale structures of filaments of clusters of galaxies separated by great voids which contain very little luminous matter. With the realization of the background of matter, the visual pattern seemed to be that spacetime could be expanding in the great voids and that spacetime could be contracting around galaxies and clusters of galaxies. [example of a cluster of galaxies - Virgo cluster]

One of the author's driving hopes was that a background of matter could possibly explain the dark matter or missing mass of galactic rotation. It was hoped that since the flow of the background is magnetic flux, that some combination of plasma physics (magnetic flux) and general relativity (contracting spacetime around galaxies) - both known physics - could possibly explain the missing mass of galactic rotation.

Plasma physics was obviously involved in galactic dynamics judging solely by the great jets some galaxies produce, which are obviously focused by magnetic flux. General relativity obviously must be observed by any theory and it was hoped that general relativity could help explain the missing mass of galactic rotation by spacetime actually contracting around galaxies and concentrating intergalactic matter in the galaxies.

Because of the glaring problems with the Big Bang Theory, and because there is an alternative explanation for the source of the cosmic background radiation, one had to wonder if science was not seeing what humanity wanted to see, the hand of God and Genesis realized.

Then
, the author discovered the book Quasars, Red Shifts, and Controveries by Halton Arp. Observation is everthing. Theories are only good as long as they fit the observations. Arp's interpretation of the observations contradict the present accepted theory that cosmological red shifts are caused by recessional velocities, but there are lots of problems with red shift caused by recessional velocity.

Quasars, Red Shifts, and Controveries by Halton Arp Interstellar Media 1987. [Amazon.com link]
Seeing Red, by Halton Arp Apeiron. 1998 [Amazon.com link]

Halton Arp's interpretation of the observations is stunning in that it is the complete reverse of all other conceptualizations of galactic dynamics. All other conceptualizations have the galactic matter condensing under the influence of gravity. Arp observes active galaxies to eject quasars which ultimately develop into full galaxies.

Arp's observations show that galaxies are exploding and ejecting great bursts of energy which are transformed into the luminous matter in the great spiral arms of spiral galaxies, and that galactic explosions form spiral galactic rings, as well as form galactic polar rings, and galactic arcs.

The following pictures are examples of what Halton Arp may be talking about.

Ejecta fom the medial axis of active galactic nuclei:

a polar ring galaxy
two starburst ring galaxies
galactic arcs


NGC 4314 Cluster Abell 2218
polar ring galaxygalactic arcs




NGC 4313 galaxy Cartwheel galaxy
starburst ring starburst ring


In Arp's view, the internal engines of galaxies also drive the galactic jets.

M87 and its relativistic beam of elementary particles:


M87 Hubble Telescope Image M87 VLBA Radio Image



FACT 1 THE COSMIC M ICROWAVE BACKGROUND R ADIATION

The cosmic microwave background radiation interpreted as the afterglow of the Big Bang is one of the two main pieces of evidence supporting the Big Bang Theory. A consequence of the deduction of the background ocean of matter is that the background ocean of matter provides a highly plausible alternative direct cause and effect explanation for the source of the cosmic microwave background radiation rather than the cosmic microwave radiation being a relic of the Big Bang.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center MAP project definition of the
cosmic microwave background radiation.

The cosmic microwave background radiation is proposed to be the thermal blackbody radiation of the background ocean of matter. The measured temperature of the background ocean is 2.7 degrees Kelvin.

The cosmic microwave background radiation is measured to be a perfect thermal curve, which indicates that it is the thermal blackbody radiation of a body of matter at 2.7 degrees Kelvin.

FACT 2 THE REDSHIFT OF I NTERGALACTIC LIGHT

The Stretched Photon Fallacy
Photon Detection Mechanism
Doppler Shift Mechanism
Recessional Velocity Red Shift Indicated Age of the Universe Problems

The red shift of intergalactic light interpreted as being caused by universal cosmological expansion is the single most important evidence supporting the Big Bang cosmology.

Edwin Hubble discovered that light arriving from all other galaxies is red shifted. Hubble also discovered that the amount of red shift was related to the distance of the source galaxy. The red shift versus distance relationship is scientifically interpreted as indicating that the entire universe is expanding.

The mechanism widely thought in the scientific community for the cause of the red shift of intergalactic light is that the universal cosmological expansion is stretching the intergalactic photons along with the fabric of spacetime.

The alternative explanation for the source of the cosmic microwave background radiation as the thermal blackbody radiation of the background of matter, and the glaring
problems with the Big Bang cosmology combine to make one wonder if one should not consider alternative explanations to the red shift of intergalactic light cosmological expansion mechanism.

One is forced to consider whether some other mechanism might be causing the red shift of intergalactic light and whether the energy in the Universe is not organized on a much larger scale than presently conceptualized.

The concept of the expansion and contraction of spacetime has solid origins in the math of General Relativity. The expansion and contraction of spacetime is not what is in question. The question is, is all of spacetime expanding, or is the Universe expanding in some places and contracting in others?

That is the question because if the background ocean of matter were expanding in some places, the great voids, and contracting in other places, around galaxies, in accordance with general relativity, then the pattern of the large scale structure of the universe could be explained as weather patterns in the universal ocean driven mainly by the plasma physics of the flow of the background of matter.


THE STRETCHED PHOTON FALLACY

The present explanation of the red shift of intergalactic light is that intergalactic photons are stretched by the cosmological expansion of the Universe.

The red shift of intergalactic photons is presently believed by the scientific community to be caused by the photons being stretched during their long intergalactic journey by an expanding spacetime.

Since it is thought that the photons have not undergone a quantum mechanical interaction on their intergalactic journey, the intergalactic photons had to be red shifted due to the relative velocities of the emitting and absorbing bodies. Relative velocities of the emitting and absorbing bodies causing red shift can be caused by either a Doppler shift or an expansion of the spacetime between the bodies.

The cosmological expansion mechanism of the red shift of intergalactic photons relies completely on the wave nature of photons, and completely disregards the particle nature of photons.

The problem with thinking that photons are stretched along with an expanding Universe is that even if a particle of light was stretched by the expansion of the Universe, the photon would still have the same amount of energy, stretched or not stretched, without a quantum mechanical interaction provided to remove energy from the photon.

The problem is with thinking that photon waves go by slower due to stretching is neither humans nor instruments detect individual peaks and troughs within photons. Scientists confuse the frequency of a photon of light with individual peaks and troughs of electromagnetic waves within the photon.

Humans and instruments detect amounts of absorbed energy of photons, which is determined by the frequency, but the instruments do not detect the individual waves within each photon itself.

A rule in quantum mechanics is that photons are all or nothing in an interaction. It is the energy deposit of the photon that is detected, not waves.

Since photons are absorbed all or nothing in detection, an intergalactic photon would register the same total energy on detection because cosmologically stretched or not, the entire photon is absorbed.

Therefore, stretching a photon alone does not make its frequency lower as the individual peaks and troughs of electromagnetic waves are not what is detected.

There has to be a mechanism beyond just stretching the photon to remove energy from the photon and lower the frequency. Some general relativity theorists explain that you can think of the energy being lost as the photon climbs out of the gravitational well of the entire universe. Other general relativity theorists claim that they don't have to account for the energy loss of a cosmologically stretched red shifted photon.

The 'stretched photon' cosmological expansion explanation of the redshift of intergalactic light conflicts with quantum mechanics for this reason: how does the photon loose energy without a quantum mechanical interaction?

The conflict is a photon must have an interaction to loose energy, yet no interactions are allowed on the intergalactic journey except stretching.

Since the mechanism of stretching a photon does account for lower total energy, and since no quantum mechanical interaction is thought to happen which removed energy from the photon, one must question whether photons are stretched at all, and whether there might be a more direct interpretation of the math of general relativity.

PHOTON DETECTION MECHANISM

The scientific argument often repeated is that the extragalactic photons are red shifted because the peaks and troughs of the stretched photon go by slower due to the cosmological stretching of the photon.

The only problem is that neither humans nor instruments detect individual peaks and troughs of individual photons. Humans and instruments detect amounts of absorbed energy of individual photons, not the individual waves of each photon itself.

All of the energy of the photon must be absorbed in the interaction in which the photon is detected. All of the 'stretched' photon must be absorbed.

Photons are either absorbed 100% or not at all in interactions, including when being caught in the CCD chip of an astronomer's telescope. If a photon is absorbed, it is absorbed 100%, therefore the entire energy of an intergalactic photon must be absorbed to be sensed, and the stretching of the peaks and troughs are irrelevant.

Detection of waves and troughs of light waves is not how humans sense the color of light anyway. Humans detect absorbed amounts of energy with only three poles of frequency being detected, but three poles of frequency are all it takes to give us color vision. The three poles of frequency are provided by three different biochemical processes which have evolved to capture photons of light of three small range of frequencies.

Photons are absorbed in the human eye at three different frequencies by three different biochemical processes. Those three frequencies which are ranges of energy are what give us color vision, not the detection of waves and troughs of individual photons.

It must be emphasized that photons in interactions are absorbed 100% or not absorbed at all, so whether stretched or not stretched all of the energy of the photon would be absorbed when detected.


An intergalactic photon being stretched by universal expansion does not mean that it has lost energy, it just means that it is stretched. It does not matter if the peaks and troughs go by slower when the photon is absorbed in detection, because the peaks and troughs are not detected. The same amount of energy should be absorbed from a stretched photon as a non-stretched photon.

DOPPLER SHIFT MECHANISM

The problem is there a confusion of the wave nature of light and the wave nature of sounds in acoustic Doppler shift. Wave-particle duality is a different phenomenon than sensing the individual peaks and troughs of a photon.

The unit matter substructure theory allows a deeper mechanism of the Doppler effect to be elucidated. A Doppler shifted photon does not mean the peaks and troughs of photon are detected slower, rather that the interaction which emitted the photon had relatively more or less momentum energy in the direction of the observer as caused by the relative more or less momentum energies of the emitting bodies and absorbing bodies.

The Doppler effect is caused by relative momentum energies, not by the peaks and troughs of individual photons going by faster or slower like an audio wave. The relative momentum energies mechanism has to do with total energy between the interactions and not with peaks and troughs within individual photons.

The red shift of intergalactic photons could be a real Doppler shift, and the entire background could be in a general expansion exactly as commonly interpreted.

The stretched photon fallacy does not preclude the red shift of intergalactic light as being correctly interpreted as a universal cosmic expansion because even though the mechanism of the stretched photon is inconsistent, Doppler red shifted intergalactic photons would still indicate cosmic expansion.


RECESSIONAL VELOCITY RED SHIFT I NDICATED AGE OF THE UNIVERSE PROBLEMS

The age of the Universe indicated by red shift as caused by cosmological expanison is estimated to be anywhere from 10 to 20 billions years.

Links to the standard Big Bang interpretation of the evidence:
Cambridge Hot Big Bang

Large Scale Structure Problems


The STSCI Hubble Deep Field

As far back into space as we can detect, presently the Hubble Deep Field, we continue to see more galaxies. Given various estimates of the red shift indicated age of the universe, it presently means that galaxies were formed within a billion years of the beginning of the Universe. It is very difficult to explain how a galaxies could form under the force of gravity alone within the 10 to 20 billions years since the Big Bang beginning of time.

The greater scales of the Universe we map, that
larger and larger structures we continue to observe. Presently, structures such as the Great Wall are very difficult to reconcile as having been formed through gravity alone with the mass observed in the 10 to 20 billions years since the Big Bang beginning of time.

Clusters of galaxies are thought to require hundreds of billions of years to form from the diffuse matter of the initial explosion under the force of gravity alone.

If the red shift of intergalactic light is not caused solely by cosmic expansion, then the age of the Universe is not constrained by the 10-20 billion year history that it is when interpreting the red shift as being caused by universal cosmic expansion stretching the photon and the clusters of galaxies with the peculiar velocities of the cluster member galaxies now have plenty of time to have organized through gravitational forces.

The Age of Problems - Globular Clusters and of some Stars

Space Telescope Science Institute Hubble image of 12 billion year old globular clusters in M15 - text - LARGE IMAGE

STScI images of cosmology

STScI Hubble image of a 13 billion year old Galaxy

STScI Hubble image of 13 billion year old clusters of galaxies

Cambridge Large Scale Structure

Globular clusters are as old as 12 billion years old at least because their stars are all old. The age of globular clusters of stars approaches the age of the Universe itself, meaning they had to form very quickly after the Big Bang, far too quickly to have happened under gravity alone with the masses observed.

Some stars are calculated to be 14 billion years old, which is by some estimates older than the red shift indicated age of the Universe.

If the red shift of intergalactic light is not caused solely by cosmic expansion, then the age of the Universe is not constrained by the 10-20 billion year history that it is when interpreting the red shift as being caused by universal cosmic expansion stretching the photon and the Universe could be much older than a mere 10-20 billion years indicated by the cosmic expansion red shift explanation.


FACT 3 H 75% He 25% NUCLEOSYNTHESIS CALCULATIONS

Calculations indicate that the Big Bang would produce a Universe filled with 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, which is in agreement with the proportions of hydrogen and helium observed to be populating the Universe.

It is suspicious that the calculations came out to fit what was thought to be observed. A positron jet has been observed shooting out of the center of our galaxy which was totally unexpected by physicists. Far higher metal concentrations in intergalactic space than can be explained with normal gravitational interaction mechanisms have been observed. These observations combined should make one suspicious of whether the calculations made by physicists who did not fully comprehend the physical processes occurring in the galactic center should be any more valid applied to Big Bang universe size center of energy concentration.


FACT 4 EVIDENCE OF AN EVOLVING UNIVERSE

The Cambridge University Four Pillars of the Big Bang lists the fourth pillar as "Formation of galaxies and large scale structure", while it is proposed here that the formation of galaxies and large scale structure within a billion years of the Big Bang indicated age of the Universe is a major problem with the Big Bang Theory and not evidence of it being correct. The fourth pillar of Big Bang Theory should be the 'Evidence of an Evolving Universe' such as quasars and gamma ray bursts only happening at high red shift, or the distant past.

QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT ONLY

Quasars are only found at high red shifts. That no quasars are found in recent time epochs which tends to support the Big Bang Theory as quasars appear to be from a previous epoch. All quasars being at high redshift is strong evidence supporting an evolving Universe.

STScI Hubble Space Telescope image of Quasars

Superluminal quasar-galaxy interactions would support the idea that the qusars are inherently redshifted and need not be at the recessional velocity indicated distance.

Halton Arp has what appears to be considerable observational evidence of quasar-galaxy interactions. In fact, Halton Arp has considerable observational evidence indicating that quasars are ejected from active galaxies. [See
Halton Arp and Matter Creation Section below.]

Halton Arp's interpretation of the observations removes the need to explain an high redshift objects in an evolving Universe in terms of recessional velocity.

Superluminal quasar-galaxy interactions

There is a glaring problem with the observered superluminal interactions of low redshift galaxies with high red shift quasars.

The quasars are obviously visibly interacting with a neighboring galaxy, a neighboring galaxy which is at a much lower red shift than the quasar, meaning that the energy being transferred in the interaction with the quasar and the neighboring galaxy must travel at speeds far in excess of the speed of light, which of course is impossible.

Superluminal quasar-galaxy interactions are a strong clue that quasars must have an inherent mechanism that red shifts light leaving them because in supraluminal quasar-galaxy interactions, the quasar is far more red shifted than the galaxy with which it is obviously interacting. The interaction is obvious as you can see a trial of matter being dragged from the low red shift galaxy and being drawn into the high red shift quasar. The quasar and the galaxy simply cannot be a great cosmological distance apart and have a physical interaction. There must be a mechanism whereby the photons exiting the quasar have some energy removed from them which makes the quasar appear to be at a greater red shift.


HUBBLE'S YOUNG GALAXIES

The STSCI Hubble Deep Field


The Hubble Deep Field image is strong support of the Big Bang Theory if interpreted correctly with its dense population of billion star size hot blue galaxies containing hot blue young stars. The published interpretation is that small billion star size galaxies are whirling in and eventually combining to form the large 100 billion galaxies observed closer in time and distance.


The Background of Matter Theory does not seem to necessarily disprove the Big Bang Theory.

However, the concept of the background of matter makes it hard to be believe in the Big Bang because the background of matter and general relativity allow a vision of a much larger older Universe than the 20 billion year radius allowed by the cosmic expansion of the Universe causing red shift mechanism. which is expanding in places giving rise to the great voids in observed in the universe, and which is contracting in places and organizing galaxies by the flow of the background to a point of contraction in spacetime.





THE BIG BANG THEORY RE-EXAMINED
SECTION 2

Could be universal expansion, could be something else too.
Genesis Realized

Plasma Cosmology
Halton Arp
The Beginning of Time

COULD BE UNIVERSAL EXPANSION, COULD BE SOMETHING ELSE

It could be that the red shift of intergalactic light is caused by universal expansion, and that the universal expansion indicates an initial beginning of the Universe with all of the energy of the entire Universe in one initial location.

It could also be, that photons are not stretched by universal expansion and that photons loose energy on their intergalactic journeys. Science rules out photons losing energy on their intergalactic journeys because no process is identified to remove the energy. Science neglects that there is no process identified to remove energy from stretched photons either. [See
The Stretched Photon Fallacy above.]

The following are three possibilities of the cause of the red shift of intergalactic light.

POSSIBILITY 1THE UNIVERSE IS IN GENERAL EXPANSION
POSSIBILITY 2
UNKNOWN PROCESSES COULD REMOVE ENERGY FROM PHOTONS
POSSIBILITY 3
PHOTONS COULD SUFFER ENTROPY

POSSIBILITY 1: THE UNIVERSE IS IN GENERAL EXPANSION

The first possibility is that the red shift is interpreted correctly as caused by recessional velocity and the Universe is in a general cosmological expansion.

Even though the background ocean of matter provides an alternative explanation for the cosmic microwave background radiation, the existence of a background of matter does not necessarily determine whether the Big Bang theory is correct or not, or whether the red shift is interpreted correctly as caused by recessional velocity.

The background of matter does not preclude all of the energy in the Universe being in one location at a previous time as required by Big Bang cosmology.

POSSIBILITY 2: UNKNOWN PROCESSES COULD REMOVE ENERGY FROM PHOTONS

Two known mechanisms that cause red shift in photons are magnetic fields and gravitational fields. Neither magnetic fields nor gravitational fields are judged by most scientists to be strong enough on cosmological scales to provide a mechanism for the cosmological red shift. However, Halton Arp has convincing evidence that quasars are not at recessional velocity indicated distances indicating an inherent red shifting mechanism for quasars. [See
Halton Arp below.]

It is not beyond the possible that there might exist a mechanism which removes energy from photons as they travel through intergalactic, and especially through galactic space.

POSSIBILITY 3: PHOTONS COULD SUFFER ENTROPY


Tired Light does not conflict with quantum mechanics, as widely believed, because the scales and forces are vastly different. A photon not suffering a measurable energy loss in interactions on the scale of atoms on the Earth does not mean that on cosmological scales that a photon would not suffer a measurable energy loss.

Whatever the mechanism causing cosmological red shift of intergalactic photons, the mechanism is clearly related to distance.

If the electromagnetic propagation of the photon were not 100% efficient on cosmological time scales as photons are presently thought and observed to be in quantum time scales, then the electromagnetic interaction would be subject to entropy as is every macroscopic process ever observed.

The concept of photons suffering entropy is the most aesthetically appealing possibility because entropy is such a deep aspect of nature and seemingly absent in quantum mechanics, but the concept of photons suffering entropy runs counter to a present law of quantum mechanics.

There are reasons why scientists do not think that photons suffer entropy like all other physical processes. Mainly quantum mechanics does not provide a mechanism for photons to loose energy without an interaction. Energy loss from electromagnetic propagation alone is not observed. However, the author questions whether subatomic processes of photons can be extrapolated to propagation over billions of years.

Dr. Wright, a noted and highly respected astrophysicist at UCLA explains reasons why tired light is not an option for causing the red shift of intergalactic light.

Dr. Ned Wright's Tired Light Refutation

There is no observed quantum mechanical mechanism available to explain the observed red shift of intergalactic photons through a loss of energy by the photon without an interaction. Quantum mechanics does not allow for entropy of photons even over billion year time scales.

An argument against photon energy loss with a background ocean is that the background would be getting warmer if it were absorbing photon energy. The answer to that is yes, that is correct. There is no proof that the background ocean is not heating up from photon energy loss. The background ocean could be heating up in some places and cooling off in other places.


The problem with the universal cosmological expansion mechanism is that once one is aware of the universal background of matter and the permanent nature of matter, it becomes a matter of aesthetics that an entire ocean would not be in a general expansion. Rather, using nature as a guide, we would expect an ocean to have volumes which are in expansion and volumes which are in contraction.

A general universal expansion with no volumes of contraction does not explain the large scale structure of the Universe, while a vast ocean with currents flowing between expansion and contraction zones could.

GENESIS REALIZED

Since the deduction of the background of matter supplied a cause and effect explanation for the source of the cosmic background radiation, the other pillars of evidence that led to the Big Bang Theory were subsequently under suspicion.

Could the Big Bang Theory have been driven by an unconscious desire to see Genesis realized?

A definite starting point of the Universe, with everything in the Universe created instanteously at that point in time, is a Genesis-like beginning of the Universe. The Big Bang Theory provides a mechanism for Genesis.

The Big Bang Theory provides the starting point for the creation of the Universe with everything in the Universe being created instantaneously from essentially nothing. The creation of the Universe happening instantaneously with all the energy that produces the subsequent Universe having been concentrated in one point implies a God-like creation of the Universe.

The entire Big Bang Theory is deeply rooted in religious notions that God created the universe at some a in time.

As much as scientists would like to believe that the Big Bang Theory is based solely on scientific evidence, the fact still remains that the Big Bang Theory is an interpretation of scientific evidence, mainly the red shift of intergalactic light. Interpretation of the evidence is where scientific inquiry ends and where the beliefs of the interpreter enter. The Big Bang interpretation was made by minds that were heavily steeped in religious creationist doctrine whether they realized it or not.

The Big Bang Theory is an interpretation that started with a single fact, the red shift versus distance relationship found by Hubble. Georges Lemaître, a physicist as well as Jesuit priest, first preached the concept of a "primeval atom" back in 1927 based on the red shift of intergalactic light versus distance and the knowledge that general relativity allowed for expansion and contraction of spacetime.

Humankind has always employed supernatural force to explain things that were beyond our current knowledge level of ability to explain physically. Before humans knew why there were stars or why they move across the sky, humans reasoned that the Gods must be responsible for moving the heavenly objects. Eventually, humanity figured out what stars were and what was going on in the heavens with the those points of light.

Ever since humans were first intelligent enough to wonder where we came from and why we were here, which was long before we had any chance of explaining the real physical reasons, we had a tendency to think, "God must be reponsible." Eventually we figured out that physical processes were responsible for the evolution of life on Earth.

The Big Bang defines the beginning of everything. In the beginning, there is light, and then the formation of the heavens, then the Earth is created, then the creation of life on Earth, and ultimately the evolution of human beings. The Big Bang Theory is a continuous path from nothing to humans.

The Big Bang Theory provides a frame of reference for the existence of the Universe and for life itself. The Big Bang Theory anchors our history to the very beginning of time.

Unfortunately, the Big Bang theory may not be right and the Universe may be much older than the age indicated by the red shift of intergalactic light as caused by recessional velocity.

PLASMA COSMOLOGY

Present physical evidence already contradicts Big Bang theory. Measurements made with the Hubble Telescope and calculations by Wendy Freedman of Carnegie Observatories (Time Magazine March 6, 1995) indicate an age of the Universe of 8-12 billions years, but we know based on the physical chemistry of stars that some stars must be older than 12 billion years. Also, there has not been enough time since the beginning of the Universe to allow the large scale structures we observe, such as the Great Wall, to have formed.

There is no need for this book to delve into the reasons behind the creation of Big Bang Theory or why the physical evidence was interpreted in such a way as to support Big Bang Theory, that job has already been done, and done quite well. I refer the reader to the book The Big Bang Never Happened by Eric Lerner published by Vintage in 1992. Here is a
rebuttal of Lerner's book by noted UCLA scientist, Dr. Edward Wright.

The beauty of the Lerner book is that it explains an electromagnetic mechanism for the rotation of galaxies rather than a the solely gravitational mechanism not widely believed. My work leads to the same conclusion, which is that galactic rotation is an electromagnetic vortex. The mechanisms of galactic rotation proposed by Hannes Alfvén are exactly what I would expect based on my interpretation of the evidence.

The evidence which Alfvén offers to support an electromagnetic mechanism for galaxy rotation is derived from plasma physics. Plasma cosmologies are derived directly from physical laboratory work.


Hubble Space Telescope's Greatest Hits

One of the author's driving hopes was that a background of matter could possibly explain the dark matter or missing mass of galactic rotation and the dynamics of galactic nuclei. It was hoped that since the flow of the background is magnetic flux, that some combination of plasma physics (magnetic flux) and general relativity (contracting spacetime around galaxies) - both known physics - could possibly explain the missing mass of galactic rotation.

Plasma physics was obviously involved in galactic dynamics judging solely by the great jets some galaxies produce, which are obviously focused by magnetic flux. General relativity obviously must be observed by any theory and it was hoped that general relativity could help explain the missing mass of galactic rotation by spacetime actually contracting around galaxies and concentrating intergalactic matter in the galaxies.

Then, the author discovered the book Quasars, Red Shifts, and Controveries by Halton Arp. Observation is everthing and a theory is only as good as it fits the observations.

Halton Arp and Matter Creation

In the book
Quasars, Red Shifts, and Controveries by Halton Arp., Halton Arp interpretes obserrvations showing that galaxies eject energy which is converted into matter,

Quasars, Red Shifts, and Controveries by Halton Arp Interstellar Media 1987.
Seeing Red, by Halton Arp Apeiron. 1998

Observation is everthing and a theory is only as good as it fits the observations. If Arp's observations do not fit present theory, throw out the theory, not the observations!

Halton Arp's interpretation of the observations is stunning in that it is the complete inverse of all other conceptualizations of galactic dynamics. All other conceptualizations have the galactic matter condensing under the influence of gravity. Arp observes active galaxies to eject quasars which ultimately develop into full galaxies.

Arp's observations show that galaxies are exploding and ejecting great bursts of energy which are transformed into the luminous matter in the great spiral arms of spiral galaxies, and that galactic explosions form spiral galactic rings, as well as form galactic polar rings, and galactic arcs.

The following pictures are examples of what Halton Arp may be talking about.

Ejecta fom the medial axis of active galactic nuclei:
a polar ring galaxy
two starburst ring galaxies
and galactic arcs


NGC 4314 NGC 4313 galaxy Cartwheel galaxy Cluster Abell 2218

Arp theorizes that the internal engines of galaxies also drive the dynamics that produce galactic jets.


The M87 and its relativistic beam of elementary particles:


M87 Hubble Telescope Image M87 VLBA Radio Image



Hubble Space Telescope's Greatest Hits

THE BEGINNING OF TIME

After the deduction of the background ocean of matter, the Big Bang Theory is obviously a human centered theory of the origin of the Universe. The Big Bang Theory is a human centered theory because it connects life to a God-like instant creation of the Universe.

With the realization of the background of matter, we must now move back the point in time in which the Universe was created. We must again move the beginning of the Universe to a point so far back in time that we have no idea how long ago it happened, or if creation even happened at all, for as far back in time as we now see, the Universe always was.



Part III Chapter 14 Objections and Problems


Title Page
of the Nature of Matter
Table of Contents of the Nature of Matter
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Comments? jrees@starlight-pub.com
Last update: December 30, 2000Created March 12, 1997

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